Monday, May 25, 2020

The Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimension Business Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 23 Words: 6802 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? This chapter is divided into two sections. The first section defines culture, its importance in international business and the various cultural dimensions for working globally. The next section describes the culture of India and U.K. and reviews the impact of culture on the working of Hilton Hotel Group in both the countries. Finally, it ends with a brief summary. 3.2 CULTURE Hofstede (2003) defines culture as the collective programming of mind that distinguishes the members of one human group from another. It is evident that people from diverse environment can misunderstand each other. When two people interact in an organization, culture characterizes their behaviour and attitude towards others. When a company plans to start a business in abroad, employees with good communication skills and with the ability to adapt into new environment are chosen to travel and interact with people of various cultures and nationalities. (Mead, 1992) Table 3.1 World population percentages in terms of home region, language, and religion Home Region % Language % Religion % Asia 58.4 Mandarin 14.4 Christianity 33 Africa 12.4 Hindi 6.0 Islam 22 Europe 9.5 English 5.5 Hinduism 15 Latin America 8.4 Spanish 5.6 Non- Religious 14 Former Soviet Bloc 5.5 Bengali 3.4 Buddhism 6 North America 5.2 Russian 2.8 Chine se Tradition 4 Australia and NZ 0.6 Japanese 2.0 Primal-indigenous 3 German 1.6 Other 3 French 1.3 Other 54.4 Sources: www.census.gov ; www.adherents.com. This table shows the division of worlds population according to Region, Language and Religion which are the major aspects of determining ones culture. Taylor (1870) defines culture as that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society. Culture plays a very important role in business. All civilizations have its own cultural elements like language, religion, values, attitude, customs, education, aesthetics and social institutions. (Czinkota, 2007) Culture passes from one generation to the other, however it can vary from one group to the other. Every society has its own point of view and opinion about various situations; however, it acts as a barrier to communication. (Daniels, Lee and Sullivan, 2004) Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimension Business Essay" essay for you Create order 3.2.1. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS Geert Hofstede Cultural dimensions Geert Hofstede, a much known professor carried out the study of impact of culture on individuals at a workplace. It took him six years to complete this study as it consists of interviews of more than 100,000 employees from 70 countries. According to Hofstede 2004, the UK has 35 points in power distance, 89 in individualism, 66in masculinity, 35 in uncertainty avoidance and 25 in long term orientation. Power Distance -According to Hofstede, 2004, Inequality exists in every culture; however the extent to which less powerful members of the society agree to the inequality differs from one culture to the other. Power distance is related to the different solutions to the basic problem of human inequality High power creates less communication amongst the bosses and employees whereas when the power is low, employees communicate more with their superiors for the decision making purposes. Individualism vs. collectivism- Individualism is defines as the capability of a human being to only take care of himself or his family where as collectivism describes a group of people who look after each and every member of that group. (Hofstede, 2004) These two dimensions describe the individualist or collectivist culture of a human being. Masculinity vs. Femininity- The third dimension is one of the most dominating factors of a culture. Countries where men are considered to be more strong and tough and women are considered to be more delicate and soft follow masculine culture where as countries where men and women are considered equal in terms of strength and tenderness follow feminine culture. (Hofstede, 2004) Uncertainty Avoidance- It is the level to which an individual can accept sudden changes and situations. Companies which have the tendency to admit unpredicted circumstances and dislike uncertainty have high uncertainty avoidance score culture whereas countries which take things as they come and are prepared for any change at any point of time have low un certainty avoidance score culture. (Hofstede, 2004) Long term vs. short term orientation The fifth dimension known as the Long term vs. short term orientation was discovered quite later by Hofstede with the help of a survey intended by Chinese scholars. According to Hofstede (2004), long-term orientation means focusing to the future whereas short term orientation is focusing on the present and past. In long term oriented societies, pragmatism, perseverance is valued more; in short term oriented societies, respect for tradition and return favours is valued more. TABLE 3.2 Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimension Four Dimensions Degree of Sale Individualism Vs. Collectivism Masculinity Vs. Feminist Uncertainty Vs. Avoidance Power Distance Long Term Orientation. High Self Determination Controlling Relationships Formal Relationship Social Difference Commitment to future and use of tradition Low Collectivity Care of relationship Informal relationship Social Integration Personal Steadiness and stability Source: Chang,2003 and Hofstede, 2001 3.2.2. HOME CULTURE VERSUS FOREIGN CULTURE Tayeb (1998) says that the decision to become involved in international business depends, among others, on the size of the companys domestic market, its production capacity and capability, and the financial and other resources that the foreign market requires. In that way, firms can be placed on an internationalisation scale ranging from domestic single nation to totally globalise. The extent to which national culture becomes relevant to a firm can be shown in the following table. The company own home country culture is of high relevance, though the managers and other employees may not be aware of its influence. The relevance of other peoples culture becomes greater for a firm as it spreads its activities and products past its national boundaries to reach foreigners with different value systems and tastes (Tayeb 1998). 3.2.3 IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Understanding culture and its impact on international business is very important for the firm and its employees. Organizations differ not only on the basis of international culture but national culture as well. According to Ball et al. (1996), doing business with another culture is not an easy task and to be successful, every foreign company should be aware and follow some rules that make their business activity more compatible. They state that there are six rules of thumb for doing business in another culture. Even if these can be important when doing business in the home country, they become more crucial when going abroad. Johansson (2000) states that it should be kept in mind that even if adaptation to the foreign culture is good when it comes to future negotiations and co-operations, there is a limit for how far a manager should go to try to accommodate this foreign culture. Mistrust from the other part can be created if for example a manager is trying to adapt to the for eign culture and is doing this superficial and with lack of deeper meaning. This can lead to misinterpretation and seen as matter of insincerity. When a company begins to work outside its national country, it encounters various environmental and cultural changes which is not the case in own country. If one does not understand these cultural differences, then he might to face barriers in the success of the organization globally. (Lane et al, 2001). More international operations lead to more interaction and communication with people and companies working in different culture. Therefore, in order to operate productively, it is a basic need to understand or have knowledge of different cultural attributes and contrast. (Adler 1983). Ferner and Quintanilla (1998), state that companies need to operate as one organisation which face global environment although they are consisted of different subunits which carry the characteristics of the local environment they operate in and the c ompanies also bring the cultural elements of the home countries which they originated in Since the study of national and international cultures has become of the most acknowledged topic, therefore, it is important to learn culture, its importance and impacts in international business. 3.2.4 IMPACT OF CULTURE ON INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS According to the article on Cultural impact on international Business, 2011, Culture influences international business in many ways. When culture and business interrelate with each other, it directs to the growth of fascinating circumstances or situation. When diverse cultures come together at an ordinary point with business as the podium, the spar is bound to happen. But most significantly, such circumstances assist us in becoming accustomed to demanding situations. Various societies or nations around the globe pursue different gestures and manners. The technique to see a difficulty might vary from country to country in the world. The global business culture, altogether, is an assembly of a variety of industry tradition, cultural power and the consideration development followed in different countries. Below are discussed the impacts of culture on an international business on the basis of body language, communication, time etc. Body Language Every country follows a different culture, which can be clearly found or seen in the behaviour and body language of its people. In order to work internationally, accepting the facts about underneath gesture or motion becomes essential. There is likelihood that people can get the wrong impression about the actions of different cultures. Thus, it calls for an accomplished planner to handle tricky state of affairs for the duration of conference. (Moran et al,2011) Communication communication is another aspect of culture that affects the international business. Different countries have different ways of communication. The words and vocabulary used by a few people might sound unkind to others. The pronunciation of some words could have a different impact on the cultural ways of communicating in the commercial sector. This can also act as an obstacle in the progression of business communication. (Moran et al, 2011) Time The first thing that comes to mind when we talk about time in business in Punctuality. Britishers and Germans are very punctual and follow a time-bound schedule. The various time-cultures could be one of the major factors for creating differences amongst people from miscellaneous ethnicity. Multinational Companies follow a schedule for meetings while doing a business and the way in which meetings are handles could also be the cause of having different point of views.(Moran et al, 2011) It is necessary for corporate houses to understand the social conditions of different countries, to successfully tap the respective markets. Being sensitive to the values and beliefs of different cultures of the world is necessary. (Leung 2005) The marketing executives sent abroad to operate business out of the country go through various problems and difficulties in trading with the commercial tradition and customs of that country. To target the international market and customers is not an easy task. It requires qualified experts who are trained and talented to deliver the best of their capability to the clients. 3.3 CULTURE OF INDIA India is a vast country which houses diverse cultures, ethnic groups and races. The immense population of more than a billion people has resulted from invasions, relocations and inter-marriages that took place over the centuries. According to an article published in the Inter science Management Review (2012), the various customs and traditions followed by people reflects in the business mores of India. With the advent of technology, the companies have now started to venture out into international markets. It has thus helped the human resources and the organizations to get exposed to diverse working environments across nations. India has greatly benefited by this turn of events as the gap in the work culture of India and other nations has thus decreased to some extent. INDIAN WORK CULTURE: First and foremost, the Indian etiquette calls for Namaste being a fundamental mode of greeting or saying goodbye. Recently though, education has brought about a reform in this practice a s men and women now prefer to shake hands. Due to their politeness and respect towards their guests, Indian people have trouble saying no. This aspect of their nature may act as a hurdle in sealing of contracts or doing negotiations. Paramount respect, courtesy and generosity is showered upon guests in India. It is a utopia for the international travellers. (Rai and Neelankavil, 2009) Rai and Neelankavil, 2009 also state that one of the major drawbacks of the Indian work culture is that there is no management of time. Indians dont score too well in terms of punctuality; long delays in meetings, cancellation or rescheduling of the same are a common sight. This has found its roots in the basic mindset of people and the Indian culture. Another major failing of the Indian work system is the general slack of work in the Government offices which leads to delays in meting out results, excess of the red tape baggage that leads people not to have confidence in the system. Therefore, any transactions in India call for a huge amount of patience to be able to meet with the results. The article published in Inter Science Management Review, 2012 also states that Despite other shortcomings, Indians fare well in matters of the English language. The adeptness of the average middle class over the language is laudable. There is absolutely no hitch in sending and receiving of official letters, emails or faxes. The office environment in India is usually very formal and there are no personal relationship between the bosses and the subordinates. The decision making in almost all of the private companies is from top to bottom, which may take a long time for the decision to be made and implemented. This accounts for the general lack of management inside the working sector. Most of the Indians carry their work pressure home. They put in extra hours at work hence losing the work-life balance. This creates more pressure on them as the workplace demands are entirely differe nt from that of the family. All this is done in an effort to earn monetary benefits and climb higher on the ladder of hierarchy of the workplace. Indians generally dont make good mentors, they are soft critics and dont stand up against something wrong as much as they should. This is thought to be because of the process of appraisal, the appraiser demands positive feedback despite the gaping holes in management and work. The lack of dexterity of the appraiser is usually the main reason behind lack of the much needed critical review. Indians have a hard time coping with changes of any sort, be it changes in management or work timings. A lot of time and energy is required for Indians to bring the change to practice. 3.3.1 IMPACT OF CULTURE ON HILTON HOTEL, INDIA One such new path is the concern with national culture. Whereas traditional IB research has been concerned with economic/legal issues and organizational forms and structures, the importance of national culture broadly defined as values, beliefs, norms, and behavioural patterns of a national group has become increasingly important in the last two decades, largely as a result of the classic work of Hofstede (1980). National culture has been shown to impact on major business activities, from capital structure to group performance Gibson (2002). Cross-cultural experimental literature examining the influence of individual characteristics has evolved, yielding greater sophistication and specification to our understanding of cultures influence. Much early cross-cultural work tested only for the main effects of culture often using national culture as a proxy variable for a given cultural orientation. That work, exploring the influence of the presence (a main effect) of a given cultur al orientation, laid the groundwork for more complex experiments to follow, which test how differences in the levels (a moderating influence) of a cultural orientation (even a primed, temporary one) influence behaviours or perceptions. The research of Gelfand et al. (2002) examined both the main effects and the moderating effects of individual characteristics on the Hilton Hotel in India. Using national culture as proxy for cultural orientation, their results support robust findings of self-serving biases in individualist cultures (Thompson and Lowenstein, 1992), where the self is served by enhancing ones positive attributes to stand out and be better than others, but find relatively less bias in a collectivistic culture, in which the self is served by focusing on ones weaknesses to blend in and maintain interdependence with others. However, they also measured individual self-construal, and demonstrate that independent self-construal are higher in India and are positively related to self-serving biases. Thus, not only is a main effect of culture on the working of Hilton Hotel in India, but the examination of individual self-construal helps to explain why such an effect exists. Research of this type is especially valuable given that much of the theory underlying business research has been developed and tested exclusively in Western contexts. Diversity: Most organizations in the India, particularly large ones, strive for consistency, standardization, and agreement, largely from the misleading assumption that the elimination of divergence/diversity automatically results in efficiency and success. This traditional view of organizational structure assumes that contradictions are to be first prioritized, and then eliminated, so that everything will run smoothly. We have all known managers and executives who need their subordinates to agree with their decisions, tell them they are doing a terrific job, and avoid challenging their authority. While this may be or ganizationally neat and psychologically comforting, it is stifling, stagnating, and, over the long haul, counterproductive. Experimental research focusing on the moderating influence of individual characteristics contributes to this literature because it directly tests whether these processes, biases, and behaviours are indeed universal phenomena, or whether they are specific to Western populations. As Oyserman et al. (2002b) point out in their Meta-analysis of research on collectivism/individualism, cultural priming is one of the most promising areas of cross-cultural research. The theoretical underpinnings of priming stem from social cognition research, which shows that accessible knowledge influences behaviour, and that temporarily accessible and chronically salient knowledge produce equivalent effects in the laboratory. Thus, priming techniques create an experimental analogue of chronic differences between cultural groups by temporarily focusing participants attention on d ifferent cultural content or values. (Hong et al., 2000) Examples of this research would be the study mentioned in an earlier section, as well as which primed participants with cues that were or were not congruent with their cultural orientation (e.g., using pronouns such as I and me for an independence priming or we and our for an interdependent priming) and examined the influence on factors such as cognitive speed and accuracy, memory, and attitudes. Results across all the experiments indicate the existence of a chronic cultural orientation, and one that is more malleable in the face of a primed orientation. 3.4 CULTURE OF U.K There are about 3.7 million businesses in the U.K which includes 75% of jobs in service industry like hotels, restaurants, travelling, shopping, computers and finance. This sector consists of more than 20 million employees and 22 percent of British workers work more than 48 hours a week. (Pryce, 2007) According to the Central Intelligence Agency (2007), the United Kingdom is one of the most developed countries in the world and being a leader in trade as well as the leader as the financial centre. It is seen as one of the largest five economies in Europe, with banking, insurance and other business services being an integral part of it. As the United Kingdom is a part of the EU, most of the institutions and policies are in accordance with the regulations laid out by the EU. As the UK has a monarchical constitution, the government rarely gets involved in the matters of economy, its main concern is with improving public services like education and health (The Economist, 2007). A lar ge number of international and global enterprises find home in the United Kingdom (Ferner and Varul, 2000). Due to diverse work environments provided by these global enterprises, the British companies get to experience the work culture provided by the international markets and manage it efficiently. An argument provided by Ferner and Varul (2000) states that the British enterprises have a niche above other companies in terms of development of customer friendly policies and structures. Also, these enterprises play an integral role in globalization of industries, thus placing UK in the top realm to play the role of international operations armed with international companies. Hence, the UK could be expected to be the place with the most number of globalized companies with leading role of international operations. 3.4.1 KEY CONCEPT AND VALUES OF BRITISH CULTURE According to an article on International Business Negotiations 2005, United Kingdom consists of a blend of four cultural and ethnic backgrounds named as England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. Such a multicultural country persists to bring together its rich culture and modern attitude. The understanding of the basic principled business standards of the United Kingdom is very important for any company that wishes to operate business in such an inherited and reputable country. Indirectness The most important aspect of British culture is its way of approach and communication. In the U.K, people are known well for their graciousness and good manners like courtesy, politeness and civility. While undertaking business in the UK, it is seen that straight questions obtain indistinct answers and the exchange of dialogues takes place in detail. In order to understand what one really means to say, it is necessary to take note of the nature of voice and facial expressions. (Whittaker , 2009) Stiff upper lip The term stiff upper lip is often used to describe the traditionally British portrayal of reserve and restraint when faced with difficult situations. All business meetings and deals are done with entire regulations and customs. Any positive or negative form of emotion should be neglected in the british work environment. (Whittaker, 2009) Humour A vital element in all aspects of British life and culture is the renowned British sense of humour. The importance of humour in all situations, including business contexts, cannot be overestimated. Humour is frequently used as a defence mechanism, often in the form of self depreciation or irony. It can be highly implicit and in this sense is related to the British indirect communication style. (Whittaker, 2009) The United Kingdom is renowned for its colourful history and strong sense of tradition that has been shaped by a colonial empire, both civil and European war and a constitutional monarchy. The fourth largest trading nation, the UK is fast becoming Europes leading business centre. Supported by a long-established system of government and economic stability, the UK is an attractive base for overseas business, offering skills in areas such as research, development and technology. However, in order to operate successfully in the UK business environment, there are a number of important issues to take into consideration both before and during your time there. (Kenna and Lacy, 1995) 3.4.2 IMPACT OF CULTURE ON HILTON HOTEL, U.K. There are quite a few Hilton Hotels in the U.K. The most important cultural factors that affect the business of Hilton Hotel in U.K. are as follows:- 3.4.2.1 PRICING Price plays a key role in creating customer value and building customer relationship, as well is one of the four elements of the marketing mix and an indicator that affects buyer choice. Many companies today compete with each other with different prices in both the domestic and the international market. Price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenue; all other elements represent cost (Kotler et al. 2007). Pricing is one of the most complicated decision areas encountered by Hilton Hotel, U.K. Market prices at the customer level are much more difficult to control in international markets than in domestic market. The pricing of the Hilton Hotels in the U.K. in general is more complex and critical than those located in India. According to Chee et al. (1998), the price is critical because it affects the firms ability to stay in the market. The price is also complex, because of the diversity of markets, with their different environment such as, political, lega l, social, technological, consumer characteristics, etc. Thereby, price is an issue that can affect the international business and the companys co-operations in the foreign country 3.4.2.2 NEGOTIATIONS According to Tayeb (1998) language is one of the major issues when it comes to negotiations with trade partners from other cultures. Although it is not always indispensable to know the partners language, several studies shows that a link exists between successful company performance in winning new business in foreign markets, and the ability of the company to conduct its business in the language of the customer. Tayeb (1998) also states that there are some aspects of culture that manifest themselves in a negotiation situation. Foreign partners not only speak languages other than ones own, but also have a tendency, for cultural reasons, to think in different ways and have different priorities in the way in which they do business. For example, some people prefer to do their business meetings with foreigners in a formal way, and would be offended to be addressed by their first name; some might believe that the use of an informal style and first name would signal to the partners tha t they are trusted. Two partners from these different cultural backgrounds could easily misunderstand each other if they negotiate without a previous knowledge of one anothers assumptions and values. 3.5 SUMMARY In todays time of globalisation, international business is getting bigger and escalating for both multinational as well as local companies. Due to this, cross cultural matter have gained a lot of importance. In this literature review, the main focus has been to discuss culture, its importance and impact on Hilton Group of Hotel in India and U.K. This chapter has been presented to help the reader understand the basic theoretical concepts which helps in the findings of the case study and answering the research question. This part of the thesis helped us in understanding the relationship between culture and international business. Development in the fields of technology and communication etc, companies from various cultures have started working together, thus making culture an important subject of discussion in International Business. This chapter discussed the Hofstedes five cultural dimensions named Individualism, Power distance, Uncertainty, Masculinity and Long-Term orientat ion. It also explains the working culture of India and U.K and the impact of culture on the business of Hilton Hotel, India and Hilton Hotel, U.K. In international business negotiations, it is important to learn about the counterpartsÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚ ¸ culture and thus ameliorate the problems that can arise in the course of the negotiations. From this study, we can see that there are marked differences in the Indian and British negotiation styles which stem from cultural differences among the two countries. Knowledge of these differences will enable negotiators understand the negotiation behaviour of their counterparts with a view to making negotiations proceed with more ease. However, it is also important not to allow cultural stereotypes to determine the relationships with the potential business partners. This is because individuals may have their own distinct culture which does not always mirror the countrys perceived culture. 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter is designed to illuminate the research methodology of this study. It is divided into various parts that explain the different research approaches, research methods, research design and the examination of data collected. In particular, the methodology adopted to choose the sample and analyse the data will be discussed. The writer will also explain the limitations of this research and ends it with a brief summary. 4.2 RESEARCH DESIGN Research design is defined as an arrangement of answering the research questions in order to collect the correct information. It aims in obtaining the clear objective derived from the research questions, data collection method, limitations and ethical issues. (Saunders et al, 2007) Conducting a research is not an easy task. It involves various preparations before carrying out the research work for example it requires a research design to get an idea of how the data will be collected. It is a general plan which is structured to get appropriate answers for the research questions. This research study involves the use of descriptive research so that the reader gets an absolute understanding of how this research is carried out and technique used for analysing the data. 4.3 RESEARCH STRATEGY Research strategy is the main deciding factor that helps us in choosing the suitable research approach and facilitates us to assess the research proposition. It is defined as the general approach to research determined by the kind of question that the research study hopes to answer (Gravetter and Forzano) The three types of research strategies are explanatory, exploratory and descriptive. This research involves in-depth interviews with the management of Hilton Hotel in India and U.K to get the answer to the research question. The questions of the interview were formed on the basis of the cultural difference and impact on the working and business of Hilton Hotel, India and Hilton Hotel, U.K. 4.4 RESEARCH APPROACH The most commonly used research approaches known as deductive and inductive approaches are explained below:- Deductive Approach Deductive approach, also known as the top-down approach is used for gathering common to definite analysis like laws, rules and principles etc. Thus, the knowledge of a particular field/area or the theory in relation to that area helps in deriving a result of the hypothesis which can further be used to transform the theoretical concepts into a researchable article. (Bryman and Bell, 2007) Inductive approach The inductive approach is the opposite of deductive approach. It is used for gathering definite to general observations. It is also named as the bottom-top approach. When the researcher concludes the inference of the analysis of the theory, the result is then stored into the findings related with the research area. (Bryman and Bell, 2007) To investigate the impact of the cultural difference on the working of Hilton Group of hotel in India a nd U.K., the researcher will makes use of both the deductive as well as the inductive approach. 4.5 RESEARCH METHODS Qualitative Research Method According to Miles and Huberman 1994, Qualitative research is conducted through an intense and/or prolonged contact with a field or life situation. Qualitative Research is conducted in our day to day circumstances of groups, organizations, society etc. It is concerned with the quality and not the quantity. This type of research comes into use to recognize the respondents behaviour and performance in life. Quantitative Research Method Quantitative research is used to measure the data. It is often carried out using two methods: survey and testing by the respondents to perform the analysis. It is more concerned with the quantity and not the quality such as it focuses on the characters, properties and observed values. (Nan, 1995) Quantitative research consists of questionnaires, in-depth interviews, projective techniques etc. to collect the data. Mixed Research Method Mixed research method engages philosophical assumptions that guide the d irection of collecting, analyzing, and mixing qualitative and quantitative approaches in many phases in the research process. (Creswell and Clark, 2007) It involves the use of both the qualitative as well quantitative research methods in one study or a sequence of studies. Since, this research aims to investigate the difference in culture of India and U.K. and its impact on the business of Hilton Hotel in India and U.K., in-depth interviews were conducted with the management team of Hilton Hotel, India as well Hilton Hotel, U.K. 4.6 DATA SOURCES A data source is the method from which the data is collected. It is of two types: Primary and Secondary. The primary data is generated from the questionnaires and the interviews conducted whereas the secondary data comes from the books, articles, journals and other applicable literature. Primary data is used in developing new hypothesis and the secondary data helps in building an academic environment. Both primary and secondary data are a reliable source of collecting information and use of both the sources can provide the researcher with a consistent conclusion. The data collected from both the sources can be checked against each other in order to attain a suitable end result. (Saunders et al, 2009) 4.7 DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENT Questionnaires are considered as one of the most common methods of collecting data in business studies as it is very beneficial. The most important advantage of using questionnaire as a research method is that it can be easily managed, consume less time and reduces cost as compared to the other methods (Ghauri et al, 1995) This research study required the use of quantitative research method. A questionnaire was designed and used as the measuring instrument. The data was gathered using the questionnaire and in- depth interviews were conducted with the senior management staff of the Hilton Hotel in India and U.K. to understand the impact of cultural difference on its working. 4.8 POPULATION AND SAMPLE Leary (2004, p.118) defines sampling as, the process by which a researcher selects a sample of participants for a study from the population of interest. A total of four in-depth interviews were conducted with the senior management staff of Hilton Hotel, India and Hilton Hotel, U.K. The Interviews were conducted only with a few staff of Hilton Hotel as interviews with the entire management of Hilton Hotel in both India and U.K. would have been very costly, time-consuming and impractical. TARGET POPULATION Target Population is the first step of sampling process. According to Malhotra and Birks 2003, target Population is the collection of elements or objects that possess the information sought by the researcher and about which inferences are to be made. The sample used in this study was selected from employees in various job roles, comprising mostly Project Managers, Developers, Solutions Consultants, Systems Architect and management job categories. 4.9 ACCESS Saunders et al, 2009 states that it is quite understandable that to gain access to the management of a company or organization is the most difficult task while carrying out research in business studies or environment. Paroutis and Pettigrew (2007) argue that in order to gain access to the associates or management of the company, the most important fact that should be kept in mind is the trust factor as it requires valuable support and crucial time of the respondents. In order to get affective results, the respondents must participate in the meetings and workshops where the researcher can have a thorough study of them at a time. On the other hand, Johnson et al, 2007 argues that it is in the hands of the researcher to gain access in regards to a persons observation through well designed questionnaires and interviews. Thus, for this research, the researcher had to make use of a significant strategy of getting access regarding the available relevant resources like time and money . Therefore, the most suitable way of gaining access to the team was through brief information of the purpose and importance of conducting this research 4.10 DATA COLLECTION As mentioned above, a questionnaire was designed that helped in conducting in-depth interviews with the senior employees of Hilton Hotel in India and U.K. Each question was chosen with awareness in connection to the aims and objectives of the research study. Hence, the statement provided by Saunders et al, (2009) that the use of questionnaire to reduce the number of participants facing trouble in answering or assess the questions in a small scale study proved to be true. 4.11 DATA ANALYSIS The quantitative and qualitative data was observed very carefully to conclude the final result for the research question. To analyse the quantitative data, SPSS ( Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software was used. The data collected was in the numerical form which was put into the system which measured the correlation between the selected variables and is handed in the findings chapter in the forms of charts, tables and graphs. On the other hand, the qualitative data was analysed through open ended questions and thematic patterns. This type of analysis helps in gaining understanding of a specific observation. (Saunders et al, 2009) The researcher characterized the themes in order to make the structure of the study more evident by answering the research question. The answers were then categorized to form a combination to understand and explain the general view of cultural impact on the hospitality industry especially Hilton Hotel in India and U.K. Comparing the findings with the literature After the Primary data was analysed and the conclusion was retrieved, the researcher correlated the secondary data from the literature with the findings to look for the similarities and inconsistency. It was necessary to link the secondary and primary data until the researcher was satisfied with the conclusion so that a convincing and legitimate result could be drawn. 4.12 GENERALISABILITY AND RELIABILITY It is highly recommended to notice that since the sample size of the research was comparatively small, the findings and results cannot be generalized. This matter was resolved by using both the numerical as well as the theoretical data by the sampling process. The research was conducted amongst the expert professionals of the applicable division of the company; therefore, more dependable and consistent answers to the research question were derived. 4.13 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY Validity and Reliability in a research study are the most important and negligible factors that deal with the trust of the research, findings and conclusions and should not be forgotten to mention. (Saunders et al, 2009) Threat to the validity of this analysis could come from testing, record, appliance, humanity and uncertainty of the contributions. Talking about this study, the researcher realised that small sample size and limited access was a matter of difficulty. Although some measures were applied while doing the research as the researcher was aware of these hazards. All the participants were the employees of the company and had to follow some terms and conditions and were restricted to the influencing policies, customs and traditions of the company, therefore their point of view could be biased. To validate the research, the researcher presented very transparent and understandable information on the purpose of the research, aims and objectives and the importance of cond ucting this research along with the justification of the liberty to take part or pull out them self from this research. Finally, in case of any uncertainty or support, the researcher offered his personal contact details like email and phone number to the employees of the company. 4.14 ETHICAL ISSUE Saunders et al, 2009 defines ethics as how suitable the researchers behaviour is towards the people who are the subject of the study or the people who are affected by it. The researcher made sure that all the respondents were made aware of the need and purpose of this research and agreed to take part in completing the questionnaire wholeheartedly. The data that was collected from the questionnaires and interviews was not to be disclosed to anyone else apart from the researcher and required no name to be addressed to as only the researcher would have the access to all the information. Cooper and Schindler (2008) stated, ethics are the norms or standards of behaviour that guide moral choices about our behaviour and our relationships with others. Other ethical issue to be well thought-out was the amount to which unconstructively acceptable answers could be extracted and the level to which opening the information to everyone could make the participants uncomfortable. The au thor feels that studying about the cultural impacts on the Hilton Group of Hotels is not an ethical issue since it is only being researched to understand and benefit the readers with the knowledge of the cultural difference and its impact on the hospitality industry of a developed and a developing country. 4.15 LIMITATIONS Along with the advantages of this study, come a few limitations. There are a few subjects of concern that must be discussed and brought into notice as they act as a threat to the validity of the results and findings. Below are the limitations that were faced by the researchers in conducting the research:- The sample size was small as compared to the total number of employees working in the organisation Due to less time and finances, the area under discussion could not be studied in detail It has always been difficult for the respondents to devote their valuable time in answering the questions while working Since the sample size was small and only contains the information from a few experts of the company, the findings cannot be generalized There is a matter of concern with the reliability of the findings because of factors like instruments, history etc. Considering all the limitations mentioned above, it has come into account of the researcher that there exist flaws and drawbacks that offer these restrictions for the achievement of the present thesis. 4.16 SUMMARY This chapter discussed the various research strategies, research approaches, research methods and the types of data sources that were used to gather all the data and the related answers to the research question of this research study. It also explains the ethical issues, limitations, validity and the reliability measures the researcher had to face while conducting this research. In order to get an appropriate answer to the research question for this study, the researcher made use of the quantitative deductive approach as well as the qualitative inductive approach by taking help of a well designed questionnaire and conducting in-depth interviews with the senior management staff of the Hilton Hotel in India and U.K.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Emergency Response From The Federal Emergency Management...

This paper will discuss emergency response derived from the Federal Emergency Management System through the Department of Homeland Security, and the management system connecting the support entities. Additionally, it will cover the response to the terrorist attacks of 9/11, and the response to Hurricane Katrina. Specifically, this paper will look into a few areas where emergency response has failed and why. Furthermore, it will look at lessons learned from failings associated with these responses. Finally, this paper will look at what emergency response methods could improve, and a business design created to improve response efforts in the future. Federal Emergency Management Agency There exist numerous types of†¦show more content†¦There were six original agencies that combined together to create what is recognized today as FEMA. FEMA is in charge of coordinating and managing relief efforts for large, and/or lesser scale disaster efforts. When FEMA is notified into action, it sets in motion a wide range of entities that collaborate together to provide assistance. Roughly, a few types of assistants that are set into motion would include financial and physical support. When FEMA is called into action, they utilize a specific system called the National Incident Management System or NIMS. The National Incident Management System is designed as a systematic way of coordination between the public and private sectors to manage response efforts for several types of incidents to aid in preventing loss of life and damage. It is also designed as a standard, cooperate tool used for managing incidents. â€Å"The concepts contained herein provide for a flexible but standardized set of incident management practices with emphasis on common principles, a consistent approach to operational structures and supporting mechanisms, and an integrated approach to resource management† (Department of Homeland Security, 2015). The NIMS has several functions that work in association to provide the necessary tools for response efforts. These functions include: NIMS Doctrine Supporting Guides and Tools; Training; Resource Management and Mutual Aid; Implementation Gu idance and Reporting; NIMS Alerts; FEMA NIMS

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Personal Journal Philosophy Class - 1273 Words

I took this class because I thought its will be very interesting with philosophy. To be honest, I have no idea what philosophy means or who are philosophers. I heard some people said philosophy is harder class. I didn’t believe them, I want to give a try and end up, and I love it. I learned a lot different philosophers’ theories. When I learned their theories, I never thought of it. I walks day-by-day living my life and I never thought how my day plays out the way its does or breaking down how my day. I have my own individuals have a choice how I live and decide on where I goes. There are different between free will and determinism. The question is Do you believe we live in a free will world or has everything been planned out and is†¦show more content†¦Which means we do not really have free will. According to myself, last year, I found out I have a case. I went to police station to interview with police of what happened four years ago at camp. I had free will , I made bad choice. I made mistake. So, I can’t do anything about it because it is determinism. After that I talked to police. I received a letter from the court. That’s I am forced to go and find what is my charges. They already determinism what is my charges. I accepted it. My dad and I went to looking for a lawyer to defense me. I found a lawyer a week after. My dad was willing to pay to my lawyer and it determinism to pay him back. I explained to my lawyer of what happened. Two months later, I had another court to attend. I sat there and listen them for two hours. A camper was there and explained to the judge, lawyer, and the police. I was so upset to hear her story which it is not true. She made me look bad. The judge can’t make decision so we have to move to trial. My lawyer is working on to collect the evidences, while I am waiting. I am on free bail. I can’t make another trouble or I will have to pay twenty-five thousand dollars. Since from last year, I had to wait for the trail. They kept doing postponed. I kept frustrating when I found my case has postponed. I can tell you little bit of what happened. That’s time I was 18 and counselor at camp and the camper was 16 years old. I made mistakes. I didn’tShow MoreRelatedMarketing , Customer values and the Interrelationship Between them1456 Words   |  6 PagesChandler, 1983). Therefore, it is essential for businesses to fully understand hot marketing affects them. This essay will further explore marketing as a business philosophy, the customer values provided and the link between the two with the use of Village â€Å"Gold Class† Cinemas specifically to illustrate these concepts. Village â€Å"Gold Class† Cinemas is a unique premium site that is designed to provide customers the best experience whilst the whole screening of the movie (Village Cinemas, 2013). TheRead MoreMarketing, Customer Value, and the Link1750 Words   |  7 Pagesthe most prominent philosophies in business. Therefore, to get a better understanding of today’s business, this essay will be discussing about three important concepts. These concepts are marketing as a business philosophy, the understanding of customer value, followed by the link between marketing and customer value. In addition, this essay will be using the Village â€Å"Gold Class† Cinema as example of the concepts’ application. MARKETING Marketing as a business philosophy has grew astoundinglyRead MoreMarketing from the Inside Essay1519 Words   |  7 Pagesthe most popular constructs among business managers and academia† (Grà ¶nroos, 1997). The objective of this paper is to understand marketing as a business philosophy, as well as customer value and the link between these two elements. The business, Village â€Å"Gold Class† Cinemas will be used to elaborate these concepts. Marketing as a business philosophy In recent years, the concept of marketing has been debated and evaluated since it was recognised as a distinctive discipline and domain. Kotler definedRead MoreMy Philosophy Of Education And Education1038 Words   |  5 PagesMy Philosophy of Education When trying coming up with a personal philosophy of education, I had to ask myself what the purpose of education is. To me, the purpose of education is to teach students knowledge that is needed to make it through school and to succeed in the world after graduation. Anyone can go into teaching, but not every teacher can teach. Teachers go above and beyond to introduce methods, philosophies, and strategies to help their students learn, as well as, retain the informationRead MoreMy Philosophy of Education Essay1723 Words   |  7 Pagesthen they will be able to learn in a very effective way. 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Throughout this paperRead MoreSchoology Essay Example1454 Words   |  6 Pagesand issues by analyzing divergent perspectives. Using an inquiry framework, students practice reading and analyzing articles, research studies, and foundational, literary, and philosophical texts; listening to and viewing speeches, broadcasts, and personal accounts; and experiencing artistic works and performances. Students learn to synthesize information from multiple sources, develop their own perspectives in research-based written essays, and design and deliver oral and visual presentations, bothRead MoreMy Research Based Theory Of Teaching1402 Words   |  6 Pages My Philosophy of Teaching Madison Poage University of Iowa 12/4/2015â€Æ' My Research-Based Theory of Teaching I did not always know I wanted to be a teacher. For me, the profession that I would ultimately choose to spend the rest of my life doing did not come as easily to me as it did to some of my peers. I did, however, know from a very young age that I have always wanted to help others. I also knew that I really enjoyed being around two types of people: the elderly and the young. It was notRead MoreHow Is Communication Important For Children And Community Engagement As It Has Been Discussed? Class So Far?1392 Words   |  6 Pagesways? How do your themes relate to effective family and community engagement as it has been discussed in class so far? My overall theme is communication. I thrive on communication being key. As I continue to point out there can be serious problems when there is a break in communication. By keeping the lines of communication open, your parents and director can stay informed. For my philosophy it is important because I need to be effective when teaching my student so that they learn what I am tryingRead MoreJournal Article Analysis Essay example1577 Words   |  7 PagesJournal Article Analysis tgkoontz University of Phoenix Abstract A Week 3 assignment in the class, PHL/717 Constructing Meaning, required a philosophical analysis of an article in the Journal of Psychology. The article investigated how the connection between knowledge and learning influenced individuals to think about controversial everyday issues. The analysis included identifying philosophical assumptions, explaining practical significance and applicability, and relating assumptions and

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Primark free essay sample

One way of considering the impact of businesses upon society is to view all of the groups affected by the behavior of a business as stakeholders. The stakeholders in a business are likely to include customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, government, and local communities. Businesses have tended to be influenced mainly by customers, employees and shareholders. Increasingly, however, other groups are affecting business behavior. For example, some businesses will only supply their products to other businesses that have an ethical or environmental policy. It is suggested that businesses need to have a greater social responsibility to groups beyond those immediately involved in the business. The way in which businesses respond to issues such as health risks from pollution may depend on their ethics. Ethics are the values and beliefs which influence how individuals, groups and societies behave. The ethical behavior of businesses is , to some extent, controlled by laws and regulation. It is possible that a business following an ethical policy may: -attract customers and employees who agree with its policy; have to change its operations to fit in with this policy, for example approving certain suppliers; -have to set a policy for all the business in areas such as recruitment and marketing. Also in 1984, the first multiple acquisition took place with the purchase in Ireland of five Woolworth stores. From 1984 to 1994 a further 13 stores were added in the UK and 12 in Ireland, bringing the total to 66 stores – 32 in the UK and 34 in Ireland. A major flagship store was purchased in 1992 – a 50,000 sq. ft. unit in O’Connell Street, Dublin, as BHS exited Ireland. In 2011, Primark further expanded with store openings in the UK, Spain, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Germany. New stores include Edinburgh and Stratford City (UK); La Coruà ±a and Malaga (Spain); Zaandam (The Netherlands); Braga and Portimao (Portugal) and Dortmund, Essen, Hannover and Saarbrucken(Germany). COMPANY BACKGROUND According to Primark Handbook, (2006/2007), Primark is clothing retailer, which was founded by Arthur Ryan in Dublin, Republic of Ireland in June 1969, today Paul marchant is the CEO of Primark. Primark operates as Pennys in Ireland and it currently has 38 stores in the Republic of Ireland. Additional success in Ireland dictated the move to the United Kingdom; in 1971 it opened a big store in Belfast City Centre followed by four stores which were opened in Derby and Bristol. Today Primark has 223 stores operating in Ireland, UK, Spain, Germany, Portugal, Netherlands and Belgium. Primark SWOT analysis Strengths †¢ The company has over 161 stores. †¢ Primark offers job opportunities and employs over 27,000 people. †¢ It offers high street quality clothes for cheap prices and quality services to attract its customers. †¢ The company is part of the ETI (Ethical Trading Initiative) which focuses on worker’s rights, their production of goods and bringing businesses together to work on labour rights issues. Weaknesses †¢ Although Primark is a member of the ETI (Ethical Trading Initiative) there have been numerous negative reports concerning its business operations in the way they produce their goods. A study was shown to have found Primark used child labour to produce their goods. †¢ Other issues were with poor  working conditions and disvaluing workers rights. †¢ Primark does not advertise and this gives their competitors the advantage over them. Opportunities †¢ With its already expanding ventures such as opening 47 new stores in the UK, Primark has now opened 7 new stores in Spain to battle along its competition like Zara. Threats †¢ Primark’s threats are the competition with other companies such as Zara and HM. †¢ Problems in the area of advertising as they do not have any advertising whilst their competitors do. MARKET ANALYSIS Competitor Analysis Like any other business, Primark is also facing tough competition from George at ASDA, Tesco, Marks Spencer, TK Max, Costco, Next, Zara, New Look, Peacock and Matalan. Analysis for each major competitor determines that Primark has better business strength and high market share. It has good financial strengths and high profitability but relatively poor quality of management and low standards of technology position. In relation to competition, several external forces and environmental changes are faced by Primark that need to be considered to formulate its marketing strategy. Currently, Primark is facing high competition with quality competitors like Peacock, Matalan etc. They are offering cheap products as well and growing at tremendous speed, threatening position of Primark. Most of Primark customers are switching to rivals because of their quality products and good marketing strategies which Primark lacks. Marks and Spencer, the biggest rival of Primark has very extensive marketing strategies with strong brand portfolio. They do advertisement on almost every media available; while Primark do not use even single media for advertisement On other hand Primark is not spending much on marketing, advertisement or promotional activities which is a big setback in their management. From competitors analysis it is clear that even though there are potential threats and certain weaknesses for Primark, but strengths and opportunities can outperform weaknesses and threats. Competitive rivalry can be effectively overcome through deployment of cross-selling, pricing and co-branding and marketing strategies. Brand Strategy Brand portfolio usually refers to companys set of brands and/or products. The logic behind having a portfolio of brands rather than a single brand is possible diversification and risk minimization. Hence brand portfolio is a treasure trove. Next step is to determine our brands objectives, Primarks branding objectives include: Delivers message clearly First step in developing brand strategy is defining brands. By defining brand, its easy to create foundation for all other components to build on. Brand definition serves as measuring stick in evaluating marketing strategies. Primark has an extensive brand portfolio; Target market for Primark is people up to age of 35 who are fashion conscious. Next step in developing Primarks brand strategy is to perform a careful analysis to determine principal barriers that it may face. These barriers are also known as market conditions that can keep your product or service from achieving success. The potential barriers in deploying Primarks brand strategy can competition, timing, financing, location, lack of demand, suppliers not meeting demands and targets. In order to face these obstacles its important to spend time doing a careful analysis of products or service to assist in developing brand, and positioning products in the market. Last step in brand strategy is branding companys identity in marketplace where image is all about appearance of packaging. Its important to realize that packaging always either has a negative or positive influence on purchaser. A negative impression can detour a potential customer, just asm  a positive reaction can influence a customer to buy. A time to pay special attention to packaging is when going to launch a new brand. If youve already built a strong brand that others recognize often people may not pay as close attention to packaging. Packaging is judged and represented by business cards and stationery, web site, answering system, presentation of finished products. Primark is respected for quality of its products and cheap prices. If we briefly review business environment and other factors identified in this report for Primark then we may realize that consumer behaviour is changing and business environment evolving across retail industry. Concern is rise in suppliers demands regarding price and costs. If it continues to rise steeply it will damage profits that it is currently enjoying. Reviewing forces and factors faced by Primark and their impact on organisation, it is obvious that Primark is facing many challenges and standing at verge of it survival in long term. Segmentation At first stage of segmentation, overall market is divided into distinct groups of buyers who are likely to respond favourably to different products, services or marketing mix. Company needs to determine most appropriate basis for segmentation, identify characteristics for each segment and develop criteria to evaluate their commercial attractiveness and viability. As Primark is tagged a value clothing retailer, clothing is most important and leading item in its product portfolio follower by footwear. Its marketing segments are evaluated on basis of clothing and footwear. Although all above determined segmentations bases and variables are important but demographic factors are the most straight forward base for segmenting Primarks consumer market, as they are most meaningful. Main demographic variables for Primark consumer market are identified as in charts below. All demographic factors are identified according to their percentage relative attractiveness for targeting them depending upon their market share for Primark. highlighted segments in diagrams are identified as most meaningful for Primark and they must be targeted to gain marketing objectives. STRATEGIC CHOICES The PEST analysis stands for political, social, economical and technological analysis that provides a framework for external environment factors influencing the organization’s strategies. Political The Liberal democratic party and the coalition of conservative party under the leadership of David Cameron came into power in 2010 In order to stay market eliminating recession several steps has undertaken by the government that included massive job cuts in public sectors and cuts in funds to different parts of economy. European Union as a par is trying to discuss about free trade agreement with India. Several policies like increase in tuition fees o f students and proposals to cut down the immigration of students from non Europe countries will impact the consumption pattern of young customers segment. Now days economies of both India and China are in good position and had less affected with the recession. Economy It is said that UK suffered its most terrible recession in 2009 in over 60 years. It is estimated that expenditure of consumer is decrease by 4.4 percent in 2009. Increasing the prices of fuel and food are compressing the disposable income of people. The unemployment especially of youth employment of age from 18 to 24 years old has risen about 17.2 percent is 2009 compared to 12.5 percent in the same period of 2008. Exporters gained a competitive edge as a result of devaluation of UK sterling in 2008-2009. In time July 2008 and January the pound loss 32 percent of its value against theUS dollar and 19 percent of its own value against the Euro. Regarding the export o f goods the economy of UK is least dependent amongst others in Europe indicating that they are less vulnerable to the risk of shocks from decreasing international demands. Social UK contains people of various mixtures of cultures, races ethnics and religions and groups Among the most popular countries for immigration UK is considered a suitable one. From the statistics it has been found that about 1.5 million people were added to the UK population between 1998 and 2008 and  most of the people about two third are from Asia and Africa. People’s attitudes are now changing and they like to prefer cheaper clothing as their income sources are decreasing. Recession has caused decreasing the expenses of adults particularly the case is true for expenditures in clothing. Technological With the intensive use of increasing internet retailing methods are getting more popular and people are becoming more dependent on online shopping instead of shopping going to the outlet. Marketing online for fashion is really dynamic and now a day’s companies are setting up online shops for eg, Tesco (clothingattesco.com), Asda (George). There are various options available through which Payments can be made that may include: online banking, direct debit cards, credit cards, paypal etc. In case of distant location the company focuses on the proper management and services of IT systems that are secured. Ansoff `s Matrix The Ansoff Matrix is a tool that helps business decide their product and market growth strategy. Ansoff Matrix suggest that a business ` attempts to grow depend on whether it markets new or existing products in new or existing markets. The output of Ansoff tools are Market Penetration and Market Development in existing products and Product development and Diversification in new products but Market Development and Diversification is New Market, market penetration and product development is existing market. Market penetration occurs when a company penetrates a market with it`s current products. It is important to note that the market penetration strategy begins with the existing customers of the organization . This strategy is used by companies in order to increase sales without drifting from the original product-market strategy (Ansoff, 1957) . Primark give cheaper things to customer so it gaining competitor`s customers.

Monday, April 6, 2020

Changes In Policies Directed Toward Poverty Social Policy Essay Example

Changes In Policies Directed Toward Poverty Social Policy Essay This assignment will analyze the transmutation of societal public assistance policy that was established and implemented during the class of the 19th and early twentieth centuries to turn to the job of poorness and to help the hapless at a clip when rapid industrialization hit Britain. These policies had been developed throughout this period utilizing a combination of both province and charitable sector intercession that expanded and contracted at different degrees within both sectors at different times. The assignment will be structured to integrate the undermentioned distinct yet associated elements: Initially, I will explicate what alleviation system/policy was in topographic point to turn to rural and urban poorness taking up to the early portion of the nineteenth century. Then, I will travel on to put the environmental context in footings of how the rapid industrialization that occurred in Britain could hold contributed towards worsening the poorness being experienced by local communities and persons during the early nineteenth century. I will so travel on to concentrate on those policies and intercessions that were introduced and/or endorsed by the province to specifically turn to poorness and assist the hapless ; whilst sing in analogue, the differing perceptual experiences of success and failure that surfaced during the execution of these policies crossing a timeline of the 1800 1939 period. An built-in portion of this will include the differential classifications and positions on poorness that existed and later evolved during this clip period. Main organic structure We will write a custom essay sample on Changes In Policies Directed Toward Poverty Social Policy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Changes In Policies Directed Toward Poverty Social Policy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Changes In Policies Directed Toward Poverty Social Policy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer From the debut of the Elizabethan Poor Law Act of 1601, those who were considered as deserving hapless received alleviation from within their parish, which was subsidised by a mandatory hapless rate levied on each parish s land and belongings proprietors. This was intended to give local control and duty for cut downing the poorness being experienced by the hapless, immature, decrepit or aged within communities. These deserving hapless were provided with what was termed Outdoor Relief in the signifier of either pecuniary payment or in-kind alleviation such as nutrient, rent or apparels which enabled them to remain at place. Those who were classed as poor impotent people ( 2002, pg 11 ) and unable to assist themselves, aboard the able bodied hapless who were set to work, were provided with indoor alleviation within workhouses. This system continued good in to the late eighteenth century until the debut of the Gilberts Act which advocated that workhouses should go poorhouses, run b y hapless jurisprudence parish brotherhoods, to assist merely the sick, the orphaned or the aged. Joseph Townsend later expressed his disapproval of this attack: and said that the workhouses operate like the figures which we set to frighten the birds, boulder clay they have learnt foremost to contemn them so to roost upon the objects of their panic. ( Townsend 1788 cited in Spicker 1984, pg 10 ) The able-bodied hapless could still claim out-of-door alleviation but would be expected to happen employment outside of the brotherhood workhouse, hence poorness and hapless alleviation jobs became compounded further during a clip of agricultural depression when rewards were low and unemployment and population Numberss were on the addition. By the early portion of the nineteenth century the hapless alleviation system was under important strain as hapless rates escalated, nutrient monetary values were higher and the universes foremost industrial society was spawned as industrialization hit Britain. This was to be a period of rapid industrial progress and unprecedented urban growing ; of major displacements in forms of business ( chiefly from agricultural to industrial and service ) and of economic insecurity for many. ( Kidd,1999 ; pg 4 ) Technological promotion moved into rural communities, and the agricultural laborer was replaced with more cost efficient machinery, such as Equus caballus powered convulsing machines. This meant that agricultural workers and their households had small pick but to travel to the more hardworking towns and urban metropoliss where rewards were higher and there were more chances for work within mills, peculiarly in the fabrics, conveyance and excavation sectors. In world, this optimistic position taken by those looking to get away the troubles of the countryside and better their criterion of life would be faced with other forbiding factors and subsequent poorness within the mass working category vicinities would be harshly realised in assorted ways. Within the metropoliss people were populating in cheaply built, overcrowded terraced lodging, which had unequal sanitation and few comfortss. Within the mills, conditions were no better as workers were capable to working unprotected about unsafe machinery, whilst working long hours for unduly low rewards and having rough penalties for non conformity. Similarly, employers could freely utilize kid labors which they felt assisted hapless households by giving their kids work from the age of five old ages upwardly, much to the hurt of a kid s instruction which was fated due to no implemented statute law being in topographic point. In add-on, there were progressively cases of hapless malnutrition that existed in households which was associated to the dearly-won monetary values of nutrient, hence hapless mill workers could normally merely afford to purchase icky points. Taking into history all of these factors, the households of manual workers were ever vulnerable to unemployment, illness, old age or the decease of the breadwinner, which reduced them to pauperism ( Royle, 1997 ; pg 162 ) New Poor Law As population growing reached an unprecedented degree, hapless alleviation costs were besides lifting as more people were falling into a spiral of poorness and indigence instead than profiting from the increased rewards and improved criterion of life that optimists of the industrial revolution predicted. Politicians recognised that the current hapless jurisprudence system of 1601 needed to undergo considerable reform as there were clearly widespread defeats on the dorsum of what Malthus argued as supplying encouragement to bastardy ( Spicker et al 2007 ; pg 148 ) through the proviso of household kid allowance and that out-of-door alleviation will decrease both the power and the will to salvage among the common people ( Malthus cited in Kidd 1999 ; pg 21 ) unwittingly coercing more people towards poorness. Malthus later concluded in stating that dependent poorness ought to be held scandalous and the hapless Torahs abolished. ( Englander 1998 ; pg 9 ) Social reformist and individualistic economic expert Jeremy Bentham argued for a more disciplinary and disciplinary attack and believed in the primacy of the free competitory market in the solution of societal jobs . ( Englander, 1998, pg 10 ) In 1832 in response to the force per unit areas highlighted above a Royal Commission on the Poor Law was appointed, dwelling of 9 members and several helper commissioners runing from economic experts to societal reformists e.g. Edwin Chadwick. Their remit was to place the defects in the current hapless alleviation system and do recommendations for a new, more cost efficient theoretical account for execution. In the thick of this reappraisal, the first policy move against kid labor occurred in the signifier of the Factory Act of 1833, whereby kids younger than nine were non allowed to work, kids were non permitted to work at dark and the work twenty-four hours of young person under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours. ( INSERT SOURCE ) After much appraisal of fact and statistics in concurrence with the old influential thoughts portrayed by Malthus and Bentham the New Poor Law Report was published in 1834, that concluded the jurisprudence itself was the cause of poorness. This led to the subsequent indorsement of the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 that focused on the ethos of transfusing a work subject whilst commanding the costs of hapless alleviation ( Pierson, 2009 ) . In order to make this, the act placed its accent on seting the hindrance workhouse at its nucleus with the steering construct of less eligibility which would separate between the able-bodied pauper and the independent hapless and automatically weed out the simply work- shy from the truly indigent ( Brundage, 2002 ; pg 35 ) . Consequently, the pauper would see poorer conditions within the workhouse than the lowest life criterions of an independent laborer. The workhouse would resemble the layout and mechanics of a correctional establishment, consisting segregation ( amongst different categories ) , uniformity, boring work, a controlling subject and the bare lower limit in nutrient and adjustment. This it was hoped would finally discourage the able bodied from using for indoor alleviation in favor of happening employment to last, whilst at the same time bettering the ethical nature of the faineant people it housed and to promote their eventual release. The Act besides proposed to get rid of all out-of-door alleviation, nevertheless this really persisted to supply aid up until the 1840 s as there were deficient workhouses built to house the inevitable addition in paupers who would non acquire aid outside. Another cardinal characteristic that remained was the defenders control of the rigorous colony Torahs which would assist avoid a big inflow of paupers from the rural small towns, therefore maintaining costs for the urban revenue enhancement remunerator at a manageable degree. At the start of the Victorian epoch in 1837 the position on poorness remained as one of ego duty and character, whereby the person was considered responsible for his/her ain actions and subsequent endurance in life irrespective of the environment they were populating in. This sentiment gathered impulse as people continually failed to or were loath to happen a occupation, therefore taking to the increased dependence on the province and small or no disposition to salvage money as a agency of back uping themselves through hard fortunes and into their old age. This became exacerbated farther by those who merely ventured down the way of junior-grade offense, sexual immorality, idling and drunkenness , which were defects which could be overcome by subject and new attitudes ( Townsend, 1993 ; pg 97 ) ; and therefore farther supported the rules and constitution of the hindrance workhouse system. As the 1840 s progressed ; the defenders began to cut down the degrees of out-of-door alleviation being distributed to the able bodied hapless. Peoples were going shamed and progressively cognizant that to be considered for alleviation they would be expected to execute some work undertakings with a position to accessing employment, otherwise they would be faced with the rough world of holding to come in the workhouse with their households. Subsequently, people began to recognize the emerging stigma attached to alleviation and would concentrate their attempts on happening work and other agencies of aid before yielding to the indignities of the Poor Law and the ultimate indignity of a pauper funeral ( Alcock et Al, 2008 ; pg 13 ) . This was likewise echoed by Jeremy Bentham who argued that people did what was pleasant and would non make what was unpleasant so that if people were non to claim alleviation, it had to be unpleasant ( Spicker, 2007 ; pg 148 ) At this clip the terrible steps and conditions within the workhouse system were having a bombardment of unfavorable judgment and resistance from the spiritual sector and workers brotherhoods which led to the reappraisal and farther amendments of the Amendment Act, taking the harshest steps of the workhouses. The Andover workhouse dirt, where conditions in the Andover Union Workhouse were found to be inhumane and unsafe, prompted a authorities reappraisal and the abolition of the Poor Law Commission, which was replaced with a Poor Law Board. In 1842 Edwin Chadwick wrote and published a study made the statement that sanitation After the grippe and typhoid epidemics in 1837 and 1838, Edwin Chadwick was asked by the authorities to transport out a new question into sanitation. His study, The Sanitary Conditionss of the Labouring Population was published in 1842. In the study Chadwick argued that disease was straight related to populating conditions and that there was a despairing demand for public wellness reform. Over 7,000 transcripts of the study was published and it helped make consciousness of the demand for authorities to take action in order to protect the lives of people populating in Britain s towns and metropoliss. Sir Robert Peel and his Conservative disposal were unwilling to back up Chadwick s recommendations. A force per unit area group, the Health of Towns Association, was formed in an attempt to carry Peel s authorities to take action. However, it was merely after the 1847 General Election, when Lord John Russell became leader of a new Broad authorities, that new statute law was introduced. In 1848 Parliament passed a Public Health Act that provided for the formation of a Central Board of Health. This new organic structure had powers to make local boards to supervise street cleaning, garbage aggregation, H2O supply and sewage systems Edwin Chadwick Sanitation Report ( 1842 ) Charitable/self aid motion COS ( 1869 ) Slum clearance liberating up land for lodging developers ( 1870 ) Charles Booth ( category division/ income ) / Seebohm Rowntree Sanitation/Environment surveies Physical deterioration/health Boer War National fittingness Committee on physical impairment Colony Houses to blend upper category in with hapless communities Bibliography Alcock, C. , Daly, G. and Griggs, E. ( 2008 ) Introducing Social Policy, 2nd ed. , London: Longman Brundage, A. ( 2002 ) The English Poor Laws 1700-1930, Basingstoke: Palgrave Englander, D. ( 1998 ) Poverty and Poor Law Reform in 19th Century Britain, 1834-1914 From Chadwick to Booth, Harlow: Longman Kidd, A. ( 1999 ) State, Society and the Poor in Nineteenth-Century England, Basingstoke: Macmillan Royle, E. ( 1997 ) Modern Britain: A Social History 1750-1985, 2nd ed. , London: Arnold Spicker, P. ( 1984 ) Stigma and Social Welfare, Kent: Croom Helm Spicker, P. , Alvarez Leguizamon, S. and Gordon, D. ( 2007 ) Poverty: an international glossary, 2nd ed. , London: Z Townsend, P. ( 1993 ) The International Analysis of Poverty, London: Harvester Wheatsheaf

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Free Essays on African American Rights

This song really confused me and majority of it got me upset. I felt it to be a contradiction to what I’ve been taught about Jesus for the past fifteen years. The lyrics presented Jesus as though he didn’t want to die for us and that he just wanted to back out of God’s plan. It also specifically states in the verse, â€Å"Why then am I scared to finish what I started, What you started- I didn’t start it† that he had nothing to do with it and is scared to go on. It made me feel that he didn’t want to give up his life for us and doubted that we were even worth it. I’ve been taught that Jesus gave up his life willingly for us and accepted the fate God had planned for him. The lyricist portrayed Jesus’ humanness by showing his doubt and fear of what was to come. That Jesus at one point was in such a state of distress, that he would to turn his back on his fate and on God. To me he is shown as being selfish and even showed disbelief in what God, his father, had set out for him to do. Jesus turns to his father in his time of despair and asks for him to take the pain away as seen in the verse, â€Å"If there is a way, take this cup away from me for I don’t want to taste it’s poison.† Here Jesus explains that he doesn’t want to go through any more agony and suffering and if there were anyway possible for God to take this burden off his shoulders. Jesus is questioning God and feels as though his death might just go in vain, which is evident in the verse, â€Å"Why should I die? Can you show me now that I would not be killed in vain?† He’s now asking for reasons, for reassurance. He is need of comfort and knows not where to find it. Throughout his prayer in the garden he is reluctant and complains of his life and that he does not want to go through what God has planned for him, but at the end he seems to give in. He accepts what his future holds and even though he doesn’t want to, realizes what has to be do... Free Essays on African American Rights Free Essays on African American Rights This song really confused me and majority of it got me upset. I felt it to be a contradiction to what I’ve been taught about Jesus for the past fifteen years. The lyrics presented Jesus as though he didn’t want to die for us and that he just wanted to back out of God’s plan. It also specifically states in the verse, â€Å"Why then am I scared to finish what I started, What you started- I didn’t start it† that he had nothing to do with it and is scared to go on. It made me feel that he didn’t want to give up his life for us and doubted that we were even worth it. I’ve been taught that Jesus gave up his life willingly for us and accepted the fate God had planned for him. The lyricist portrayed Jesus’ humanness by showing his doubt and fear of what was to come. That Jesus at one point was in such a state of distress, that he would to turn his back on his fate and on God. To me he is shown as being selfish and even showed disbelief in what God, his father, had set out for him to do. Jesus turns to his father in his time of despair and asks for him to take the pain away as seen in the verse, â€Å"If there is a way, take this cup away from me for I don’t want to taste it’s poison.† Here Jesus explains that he doesn’t want to go through any more agony and suffering and if there were anyway possible for God to take this burden off his shoulders. Jesus is questioning God and feels as though his death might just go in vain, which is evident in the verse, â€Å"Why should I die? Can you show me now that I would not be killed in vain?† He’s now asking for reasons, for reassurance. He is need of comfort and knows not where to find it. Throughout his prayer in the garden he is reluctant and complains of his life and that he does not want to go through what God has planned for him, but at the end he seems to give in. He accepts what his future holds and even though he doesn’t want to, realizes what has to be do...

Friday, February 21, 2020

MGMT458 U1 IP AVON Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

MGMT458 U1 IP AVON - Research Paper Example At that point, it goes on. It weighs in at 249 words that blanket everything from surpassing contenders to expanding shareholder quality to battling breast disease. Its incredible to do numerous essential things at the same time, yet your Mission statement ought to give workers and the globe at large with one or two key objectives that characterize accomplishment in your universe. In the event that one cannot get that into a sentence or two, backpedal and attempt once more. This is not a Mission essay it is a Mission Statement. The company should Attempt to total up your whole organizations mission in one or two sentences. It should Consider it thusly: its Mission Statement, at its best, ought to have the capacity to twofold as its slogan. Compact Mission Statements are additionally more memorable and powerful. Therefore, there is no compelling reason to make it excessively complicated; simply state the motivation behind your organization, your explanation behind beginning it in any case. No, mission statements can—and ought to have that hopeful twist, yet they should serve a true need. There are four key components found in successful Statement: Value, Inspiration, Plausibility, and Specificity. In several short sentences, the company ought to have the capacity to pass on the estimation of the organization, why its brand exists, rouse and empower your workers, sound totally sensible and possible, and be as particular and relevant as could be expected under the circumstances. The company should discover a key subject for its organization, and verify each of these segments rotate around it. Moreover, Mission statements might be fiercely not quite the same as one organization to the next. The thought here is to pick whether you need your organizations announcement to reflect its transient objectives or its long haul yearnings. Make sure to pick stand